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History of the HBCU (Historically Black Colleges and Universities)

Books and Government Information

  • Congress.gov contains legislation from the 107th Congress (2001) to the present, member of Congress profiles from the 93rd Congress (1973) to the present, 
  • Congressional Research Service (CRS) serves as shared staff to congressional committees and Members of Congress. CRS experts assist at every stage of the legislative process — from the early considerations that precede bill drafting, through committee hearings and floor debate, to the oversight of enacted laws and various agency activities.
  • Critical Issue Bibliography (CRIB) Sheet identifies important research about historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and describes resources that discuss historical roles, challenges, and opportunities related to these institutions. The topics covered: (1) history; (2) finance and support; (3) enrollment; (4) Title IX; (5) case applications; and (6) the future.
  • Educational Effectiveness of Historically Black Colleges and Universities. The Black College and University Act defined a historically black college and university (HBCU) as one that existed before 1964 with a historic and contemporary mission of educating blacks while being open to all. An HBCU must either have earned accreditation from a nationally recognized accrediting agency or association or be making reasonable progress toward accreditation. Currently, 103 HBCUs are located mainly in the Southeastern United States, the District of Columbia, and the Virgin Islands. The U.S. Commission on Civil Rights conducted a briefing on May 5, 2006, to assess the educational effectiveness of HBCUs.
  • Government Accountability Office (GAO) is an independent, nonpartisan agency that works for Congress. Often called the "congressional watchdog," GAO examines how taxpayer dollars are spent and provides Congress and federal agencies with objective, reliable information to help the government save money and work more efficiently.
  • GovInfo provides free public access to official publications from all three branches of the Federal Government.
  • Traditionally Black Institutions of Higher Education: Their Development and Status, 1860 to 1982. Historical Report. An overview of the development of traditionally black institutions (TBIs) from 1869 to 1970 is presented, along with trend data for all the institutions, and data for individual institutions. The information covers 105 colleges and universities designated in 1976 as TBIs by the National Center for Education Statistics.

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